Salah finished seventh in the voting for the Ballon d’Or, and is the highest-ranked player on that list not to make the cut.
The Egyptian misses out despite the list – which is voted for by footballers around the world – including eight other forwards.
Out of the 23-man squad, which also includes three goalkeepers, six defenders and six midfielders, 10 of those listed are currently playing their club football in the Premier League.
This year’s FIFPro shortlist has been brought down from 55 players to 23, in order to resemble a tournament squad, with the final XI due to be announced on December 17.
“FIFPRO and FIFA asked professional footballers worldwide to vote for the World 11,” the organisation explained.
“We requested them to pick the three players who in their opinion where the most outstanding players during the 2020/2021 season in the following lines: goalkeepers, defenders, midfielders and forwards.”
Of the eight forwards on the list, the only two playing in England are Ronaldo – who rejoined United over the summer – and Romelu Lukaku, who spent last season at Inter Milan before returning to Chelsea.
Perhaps the most curious inclusion was that of veteran defender Dani Alves, who has agreed a return to Camp Nou but has not played any football since September.
There was room for Blues goalkeeper Edouard Mendy, who was surprisingly omitted from the 30-man Ballon d’Or shortlist, while his fellow Champions League winners Jorginho and N’Golo Kante also made the cut.
The final XI will comprise a goalkeeper, three defenders, three midfielders, three forwards, and the remaining outfield player with the most votes.
Last year’s selection included five Premier League players, with three of those five – Alisson, Trent Alexander-Arnold and Kevin De Bruyne – also among the 2021 nominees.
The full FIFPro 23-man shortlist is as follows:
Goalkeepers: Alisson Becker, Gianluigi Donnarumma, Edouard Mendy
Defenders: David Alaba, Jordi Alba, Trent Alexander-Arnold, Dani Alves, Leonardo Bonucci, Ruben Dias
Midfielders: Sergio Busquets, Kevin De Bruyne, Bruno Fernandes, Frenkie de Jong, Jorginho, N’Golo Kante
Forwards: Karim Benzema, Cristiano Ronaldo, Erling Haaland, Robert Lewandowski, Romelu Lukaku, Kylian Mbappe, Lionel Messi, Neymar Junior.